## THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS INDICATES:

**THE UNIVERSE IS CREATED BY A VOLUNTARY ACTION**

Bahaa El-Din M. Mansour

Proceedings of Al-Azhar Engineering Sixth (6^{th}) International Conference (AEIC 2000),

Al-Azhar University Engineering Journal (AUEJ, special issues), Vol. 7, Cairo, Egypt, 1-4 Sept. 2000.

**ABSTRACT**

A recent publication by the author titled “Entropy reduction by voluntary/intended actions” concludes that “The negative entropy is a genuine physical quantity which can be voluntarily produced and added to systems”. The general entropy is a vector. It’s components are; uncertainty, disorder, exergy destruction. Also, the negative entropy is a vector. It’s components are; information, order, exergy. Breeding fissionable new fuels from other fertile elements like breeding Pu239 and U233 from other elements, U238 and Th232 is a typical negative entropy addition by human voluntary action. Also, by photosynthesis, a process of extracting oxygen and storage of hydrocarbons (chemical exergy) from CO2 is executed by live plants only. This is a process against the spontaneous direction of chemical reactions executed by successive voluntary actions. By the second law of thermodynamics the lost potentials are never able to be recreated. Also, if the universe has been got in the maximum entropy state before, then it is in a stable dead state and never be able to be spontaneously changed. Based on the findings of this recent publication and the statements of the second law of thermodynamics, the present work concludes that the universe is created by a voluntary action.

**KEYWORDS**

Entropy; Negative entropy; Entropy vector; Negative entropy vector; Second law of thermodynamics; Second law analysis.

**1.Introduction**

In the field of mechanical power generation from the heat energy, experimental work was introduced by Carnot (1824), (Bejan A. 1988),. Based on the repercussions of the experimental work, the statements of the 2nd law of thermodynamics was introduced by Plank and Kelvin (1851) , (Bejan A. 1988). The entropy function was first explicitly introduced by Cluasius in 1865, (Bejan A. 1988). Since that, the entropy has always been an essential function in the analysis of processes by the 2nd law of thermodynamics.

In 1872, Boltzman revealed the relation between the concept of entropy and probability, (Fast J. D. 1970). By statistical entropy, the general concept the entropy increase of a system indicates that it is changed from a less probable state to a more probable state.

Also, within the statistical concept of the entropy, Hartly (1928) , introduced the entropy as an essential parameter in the information theory, (Tarasov L. 1988). Meaning that, the entropy increase indicates loss of information or increase of uncertainty encountered in a system or in an information carrier.

In relation to the second law of thermodynamics, the principle of increase of entropy or, alternatively, entropy maximum principle, is stated in all thermodynamic texts. It indicates that the total net change of entropy of a system and surroundings (or of an isolated system) due to any process is either zero or entropy increase. This means that the human universe will approach the complete equilibrium, or the dead state.

A recent publication by the author titled “Entropy reduction by voluntary/intended actions” concludes that “The negative entropy is a genuine physical quantity which can be voluntarily produced and added to systems”, (Mansour B. 2000).

In the present work, a brief theoretical analysis of the negative entropy concept is demonstrated. Also, invoke of some statements of the second law of thermodynamics is demonstrated. The consequences of combining the negative entropy concept and the second law of thermodynamics together are analyzed. The universe creation by a voluntary action is verified.

2. Phases of entropy

The entropy is first introduced as a function in the macro level. The following is the concerned function which describes the entropy change,

ds = Q/T (1)

where,

ds is the entropy change, kJ/K

Q is the quantity of heat (thermal energy) added to the system, kJ

T is the absolute temperature at which dQ is added, K

Thus, in general, the entropy measures, by one quantitative value, the amount of heat added at its indicated absolute temperature. Meanwhile, the 1st law of thermodynamics is concerned only with the balance of heat added or taken without distinction between the temperature at which heat is added or extracted.

In 1872, Boltzmann revealed the relation between entropy and probability by the following general form, (Moran and Howard1988), (Sonntag, and Van Wylen 1991),

S = k ln w (2)

where,

S is the entropy, kJ/K

k is Boltzmann constant, (=Gas constant (R)/Avogadro’s No. (N)), kJ/K

w is the total number of possible microscopic states available to a system in the concerned conditions

Equation (2) can be modified to a more general form, as follows,

S – So = k ( ln w – ln P ) (3)

where

P is the whole population of all possible micro-states

Then, formula (2) is modified to

S = k ln (4)

where

is the probability of the set ( w ) concerned to the state conditions (= w / P)

Equations (3) and (4) were deduced in the two theories which relate the microscopic behavior of molecules to the macroscopic properties of thermodynamics. The two theories are the kinetic theory and statistical mechanics, (Zemansky, Abbott, and Van Ness 1975). The two equations (3) and (4) hold true provided that the quantum states are equally probable. If the micro-states are not equally probable, the equation is modified to the following expression, (Zemansky, Abbott, and Van Ness 1975)

S = – k q ( Pi ln Pi ) (5)

where

Pi is the probability of the quantum ( micro-state) state “i”, between q states

If the constant k is adapted to concerned application, the two equations (1) and (2) lead to the same quantitative result, (Zemansky, Abbott, and Van Ness 1975).

A word bit is an abbreviation of “ binary digit”. In order to appoint one option of two, 1 bit of information is required. In order to appoint one option of eight, 3 bits of information is required. In order to appoint one out of N options, I bits of information are required, where,

I = log2 N (6)

This formula was suggested by Hartly in 1928. Similar to formula (5), Shannon, 1948, suggested the following equation to appoint one decision from unequally probable N options, or symbols (like the letters in the English language ), (Fast 1970), (Tarasov 1988),

I = – N (Pi log2 Pi ) (7)

where

Pi is the probability of the i decision, between N options

I is amount of information required, bits

Thus, entropy has two phases applicable in the macro as well as the micro-level (statistical entropy), both of them lead to the same result. Also, the principle of entropy is applicable in thermodynamics, general measurement of order/disorder of populations/systems and as measurement of certainty/uncertainty in the information carrier.

3. Measure of thermodynamic potential

In the simple thermodynamic (P, V, T) system, there are two intensive properties, namely, the pressure (P) and the temperature (T). The potential due to the pressure difference (P) can be directly measured by mechanical work units. It is the integral of the value (P.dV), where P is the gauged pressure. Also, the potential due to the temperature difference (T) can be measured in mechanical wok units by applying Carnot cycle principle between the concerned two absolute temperatures, the high temperature (Th ) and the low temperature (TL ). Namely, it equals (Q (T/Th ), where Q is heat added at the high temperature (Th ) in Carnot cycle. Thus, the general measure of the thermodynamic potential due to differences of pressure and temperature combined together is evaluated in mechanical work units. The general measure can be taken with respect to a (Po, To) plane as exergy. This proves the significance of the available work (exergy) as a measure of the thermodynamic potential, Mansour, (Ph. D. thesis submitted to Cairo University, 1998).

4. Entropy is the only indicator of loss of potential

Whenever there is a destruction of thermodynamic potential, there is a liberated work (exergy). If the exergy of concern is recovered as mechanical work, the process is able to be reversible. But, in case of destruction of a part of the reversible work into internal irreversibility, the process can be considered as superposition of a reversible process accompanied by destruction of a part of the produced work into internal friction. Consequently, the produced heat of friction is absorbed into the system as additional heat. In equation (1), the value of “Q” indicates the heat absorbed into the substance whether coming from outside the system or from the internal destruction of exergy.

Heat transfer at finite temperature differences (Th – TL ), is a type of exergy destruction which equals Q (T/Th ). This amount is absorbed at the low temperature TL . Final increase in the entropy is equal to ( exergy destruction/ TL ). This value of entropy increase equals ( Q . (Th – TL )/ Th . TL ), which is completely equal to S ( = (Q/ TL ) – (Q/ Th ) ).

By invoking the significant fact that entropy is a state property, then detection of state conditions is sufficient for indicating exergy destruction even if there is no heat or work or mass transfer at the system boundaries. Entropy is the only indicator of loss of potential in isolated systems as it is detected in the state conditions.

5. Statements of the second law of thermodynamics

At this point, the author invokes that in 1850, R. Clausius proposed the following statement of the second law of thermodynamics, (Kirillin, Sychev, and Sheindlin 1976):

“Heat cannot flow spontaneously from a low temperature to a higher temperature”.

Also, in 1865, Clausius introduced the first and second laws of thermodynamics in two lines, (Huang 1989):

1. The energy of the universe is constant.

2. The entropy of the universe tends toward a maximum (the principle of entropy increase).

By these statements of Clausius, changes are driven by the influence of the intensive properties. Heat, mass and system changes cannot flow spontaneously against the direction of potential of the intensive properties. Also, realization of changes is driven on the expense of depletion of these potentials.

6. The principle of entropy increase

By the previous analysis, for an isolated system, the process is either reversible or irreversible. For the reversible process, the total entropy produced is equal to zero. For irreversible process, the total entropy produced is a positive value. These two statements combined produce the following equation,

total Sisolated system 0 (8)

If the universe is considered as an isolated system, it is approaching its maximum entropy. It means that the universe is approaching the equilibrium state. These statements or similar are encountered in most of the thermodynamic textbooks. The physical meaning indicates that all thermal potentials are going to be depleted. This would be done either utilized in useful processes or just spontaneously dissipated.

7. Intrinsic relation between spontaneity and the principle of entropy increase

Process changes are implemented by potential (exergy) expenditure. Expended exergy is dissipated as heat into lower temperature sink and detected as increase in the total entropy.

In relation to these facts, changes are driven by the influence of intensive properties which need to be controlled to be utilized. If there is no control, then under any disturbance changes will spontaneously take place driven by the influence of intensive properties while not utilized. Thus, intensive properties need to be ceased/controlled to stop/utilize their intrinsic tendency for driving system change. Utilized changes as well as unutilized changes are driven by expenditure of potentials (exergies). Consequently, entropy increases to realize the equilibrium state.

On the other hand, by considering the concept of statistical entropy (equation (2)), when the entropy increases to its maximum, it means that the total number of possible microscopic states (w) is the realized case. This means that the system is in the most probable state. In the probability theory, systems tend to be spontaneously in the most probable state.

Thus, tendency of isolated systems to reach the maximum entropy state is intrinsic under the influence of intensive properties and spontaneous tendency of systems to the most probable state. Consequently, the principle of entropy increase worth to be written as follows;

“ Negative entropy cannot be spontaneously added or generated in an isolated system”

According to the principle of the increase of entropy, the human universe is approaching a dead state. It indicates degradation of exergies, decomposition of systems and complete randomness. Entropy is a measure of uncertainty of information, disorder of systems and degradation of exergy (energy at a potential difference of the destination sink).

8. Intended actions against spontaneity

Processes cannot be driven against there spontaneous direction except by intended action. Intended action means planned action based on right information to achieve the final goal of concern. This can be well understood in chemical reactions, where chemical potential is evaluated by Gibbs function. Also, the same principle can be well explained in the case of pumping liquids to higher levels or pumping heat to higher temperatures. But, in all these cases expenditure of exergy (chemical exergy, or mechanical work) is a must. Also, expenditure of exergy in such processes may be reversible (i.e. with complete efficient storage/transformation of potentials/exergies ) or irreversible (i.e. with some exergy losses and entropy increase).

But, in the present work the author intends to explain that there is a possibility of addition of negative entropy to the isolated system either by intended action from outside or from inside as a voluntary action. In the present text, voluntary is used according to the definition: “1. Done, made, brought about, undertaken, etc., of one’s own accord or by free choice, 2. Of, pertaining to, or acting in accord with the will, (“Webster’s Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary, of the English Language”, 1996).

9. Some possible phases of negative entropy

According to phases of entropy (item 2), counter actions can be done against spontaneity. The following are some possible actions for negative entropy production and addition for systems.

a. Reduction of uncertainty by information

As stated before phases of entropy encounter uncertainty. Reduction of uncertainty can be done by production of information for the purpose of reduction of uncertainty. Although, information without action utilize it will not add sensible changes to the system. However, it can generally be utilized in the strategic sense. Information stimulates useful changes in the correct efficient sense. Also, whenever it is used, it is a valuable negative entropy. Thus, reduction of uncertainty by information is a negative entropy addition to the concerned system.

b. Reduction of disorder by voluntary actions

Disorder increase means additional entropy of a system. Thus, ordering a system in the sense of increasing its feasibility for achievement of a certain goal is a negative entropy addition to the system.

c. Creation of exergy

According to Einestein’s law, mass and energy can be exchanged from one to

another according to the law, (El-Wakil 1984),

E = (1/gc) mc2 (9)

where,

E is energy liberated in joules, J

gc is conversion factor to balance units, ( = 1.0 for the present units)

m is mass, kg

c is the velocity of light, ( = 3 x 108 m/sec )

Such exergy is a pure negative entropy creation because it comes from non-exergy source, (Mansour B. 2000). Due to differentiability of nuclei and isotopes, they are not all equally able to react by what is presently known by fission, fusion or being radio active. In fusion, two or more light nuclei fuse to form a heavier nucleus. In fission, a heavy nucleus is splitted into two or more lighter nuclei. In both fusion and fission, there is a decrease in mass resulting in exothermic energy, (El-Wakil 1984). Due to the present available technologies practical limitations, nuclear fuels are limited.

Artificially produced fusion may be accomplished when two light atoms fuse together into a larger one. The most important difficulties in controlling artificially made fusion reactor comes from generating and maintaining high temperatures and the instabilities in the medium (plasma). Suitable fuels for fusion present technology are isotopes of hydrogen deuterium (H2) and tritium (H3), (El-Wakil 1984).

On the other hand, artificially produced fission, is practically accomplished by striking the positively charged nucleus by neutron at high, moderate or low speeds without being repulsed. Obtaining a sustainable (or critical ) chain reaction requires taking factors affecting the reaction into consideration, (El-Wakil 1984).

There are only a few fissionable isotopes. Many isotopes that do not appear in nature are synthesized in the laboratory or in nuclear reactors, (El-Wakil 1984).

A breeder reactor is one in which more fissionable fuel is produced than is consumed. Such a system would convert the abundant U238 (99.3% of all natural uranium) to fissionable Pu239 and hence extend the human fuel reserves for centuries to come, (El-Wakil 1984). Fast breeder reactors are already designed, constructed and put into production in Britain, USSR and France, (El-Wakil 1984).

In this concern, the author would like to emphasize that each of fission or fusion cannot be produced without well planned intended actions. Also, breeding of fissionable isotopes from parent non-fissionable atoms cannot be produced without well planned intended actions, (Mansour B. 2000). In this concern, the uranium itself had not been considered as a source of energy/exergy up to the year 1939. This dramatic event was made possible by Hahn and Strassmann’s discovery, the final necessary link in a chain of scientific discoveries that made the whole thing feasible, (Mansour 2000), (El-Wakil 1984).

The second significant example is the photosynthesis. From a human point of view, the plant system is fueled by a renewable energy. By photosynthesis, a process of extracting oxygen and storage of hydrocarbons (chemical exergy) from CO2 is executed. It is a production of exergy from a renewable energy source. This is a process against the spontaneous direction of chemical reactions executed by successive voluntary actions.. It cannot be produced except by live plants. Also, the same argument can be raised for production of food or useful agricultural products. But, these valuable processes are done by the intrinsic activities of plants. Noting that these processes cannot be done by dead plants, then they are typical voluntary creative actions, (Mansour B. 2000).

10. Negative entropy calculations

Total negative entropy change from initial state to final state is a declaration of entropy change of the three phases declared in item (2). The initial state conditions can be taken as the maximum entropy state conditions or can be taken any arbitrary state. The total entropy can be expressed in the form of a vector containing the three phases of entropy, (information, system internal order, exergy destruction), (Mansour B. 2000). This is to express the specific characteristics of each component.

Information has the property to be strategic negative entropy, (Mansour B. 2000). The following is the suggested calculation method. The only counted here is only information which removes uncertainty, (Fast J. D. 1970). In case of availability of zero information, the decision is taken completely at random. Either formula (6) or (7) is applied. By earning more information, the set of the workable decisions will occupy larger portion from the population of available options. Entropy will decrease. The set of workable decisions can be got to further narrow set by introducing the set of optimum solutions. The optimum may be a unique solution. Then, information entropy goes to zero. Also, the entropy units can be bits as suggested by the information theory, or it can be dimensionless while taking the change in the solution set divided by the population, (Mansour B. 2000).

b. Entropy change due to system internal order

Based on the correct information, the system is put into a narrow state conditions. This can be done by system ordering or by industrial processes. Narrow or fine quality specifications of the acceptable product increases ordering/industrial processes. This is expressed in skillful processes and thorough tolerances. As this must be implemented while putting the system into the solution set conditions, then the final entropy probability set will be the product of the two probabilities, the decision/information and the implementation probabilities multiplied. The entropy formula No. (4) is suggested to take the following form, (Mansour B. 2000)

Simpl = ln (inf . impl.) (10)

where

Simpl is entropy due to implementation of decision, dimensionless

inf , impl is the probability of the set at the state conditions (= w / P), with subscripts inf and impl for the information and implementation phases respectively

c. Entropy change due to exergy changes

Calculations of this phase are the normal calculations as declared by equations (1), (2),(4) and (5). If formula (1) is used in actual fission process the amount of heat (Q) and the absolute temperature at which heat is recovered will indicate exergy generated. Negative entropy will be calculated considering raising amount of heat (Q) from the ambient temperature (temperature of the heat sink) to the temperature of the reactor, (Mansour B. 2000).

As an alternative, the three entries can be added together if the information entry is calculated on natural logarithm basis and exergy degradation component is divided by k, Boltzmann constant. Thus, the three components of entropy are considered in the direction of addition of ordering the system into closer sets, (Mansour B. 2000).

Example Up to the year 1939, the negative entropy vector of the nuclear fission process was able to be filled only by figures in it’s first entry. After achieving the critical amount of information, a decision for producing exergy (fissionable fuel), and an industrial process was able to be specified. Each step in the industrial process indicates it’s own necessary information. Also, skill required for implementation. Negative entropy encountered in skillful process is expressed in the narrow tolerance. Workable design may be achieved, but industrial capabilities may need additional industrial capabilities. These capabilities are expressed in the second entry of the negative entropy vector. Negative entropy due to fuel breeding is calculated by the equations of fuel exergy calculations or by equation (1) as indicated in section (10. c), (Mansour B. 2000).

11. THE UNIVERSE CREATION

Based on a combination of the second law of thermodynamics and the principle of entropy increase, any process exhibits decrease of uncertainty of information or decrease of system disorder or lifting an amount of energy to a higher potential (creation of exergy), all of these processes are against the spontaneous direction of system changes.

Also, by proving that the negative entropy can be produced by voluntary actions, combined with the statement deduced in item (8), “ Negative entropy cannot be spontaneously added or generated in an isolated system”, the writer concludes that it is more convenient to be written as;

“ Dead isolated systems cannot spontaneously add or generate negative entropy”

In the human universe, there is no observed direction of spontaneous change from systems decomposition to ordered systems composition. Also, in this concern, there is no observed direction of spontaneous change from intensive properties degradation (exergy degradation) to exergy build-up. Composition of ordered systems or exergy build-up are only observed as products due to live plants or live human actions, (item 10).

By taking these notes into consideration, then existence of workable systems, successfully constructed from it’s sub-items, in addition to existence of stored exergies into the global universe indicates that there must be a voluntary action has been done before. This voluntary action reversed the direction from the spontaneous tendency of systems to decomposition to composition into ordered systems. Also, this voluntary action created the potential differences ( exergies ) which is impossible to be spontaneously existed by the second law of thermodynamics, (item 6). In addition, non-degradation of these systems and maintaining them workable while controlling exergy expenditure indicates that there is a voluntary action still be introduced.

If we consider the items of this voluntary action, it must be the items of the production of the negative entropy. It is the necessary information, capability of ordering the system/universe and creation of exergy. Who can do this must be the “ Omniscient, Omnipotent, Almighty, All-Powerful”.

12. Conclusions

Spontaneous tendency of isolated systems to the maximum entropy state is intrinsic under the influence of intensive properties forces and spontaneous tendency of systems to the most probable state. Utilized changes as well as unutilized changes are driven by expenditure of potentials (exergies). Thus, driving any change against spontaneity of systems must be done by a voluntary/intended action.

The principle of entropy increase states that the universe, as an isolated system spontaneously tends to complete degradation of potentials, decomposition of systems and complete randomness. These are the dead state conditions in spite of the initial stored potentials of order or exergies. By the second law of thermodynamics this direction of changes i. e. the lost potentials are never able to be recreated. Also, if the universe has been got in this dead state before, then it is in a stable dead state and never be able to be spontaneously changed. This is true on condition that there is no negative entropy added.

The three phases of entropy are the information, order/disorder, and exergy. By voluntary actions, negative entropy can be added to the systems. Evaluation of the negative entropy added is declared by a vector encounters the three entries of information, implementation, and exergy creation. As an alternative, the three entries can be added together if the information entry is calculated on natural logarithm basis and exergy degradation component is divided by k, Boltzmann constant to be dimensionless. Thus, the three components of entropy are considered in the direction of addition of ordering the system into closer sets. This quantity measures the amount of creativity in the added value to the system; (information, order, exergy).

Thus, if the universe is considered a dead isolated system, then, by the second law of thermodynamics, the initial ordering of the universe or charging by exergies cannot be spontaneously done. Thus, by proving that system ordering, exergies and potentials can be built-up by voluntary actions, then, the universe is created by a voluntary action.

**References**

Bejan A. (1988), “Advanced Engineering Thermodynamics”, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, USA.

Fast J. D. (1970), “Entropy”, MacMillan and Co., London, Britain.

Tarasov L. (1988), “The World Built On Probability”, Mir Publishers, Moscow, USSR.

Mansour B. (2000), “ Entropy Reduction by Voluntary/Intended Actions”, Proceedings of Cairo 7th International Conference on Energy and Environment , Cairo.

Moran M. J., and Howard, N. S. (1988), “Fundamentals Of Engineering Thermodynamics”, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, USA.

Sonntag, and Van Wylen (1991), “Introduction To Thermodynamics, Classical And Statistical”, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, USA.

Zemansky, Abbott, and Van Ness (1975), “Basic Engineering Thermodynamics”, McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, USA.

Mansour B. (1998), “A New Approach For Cogeneration Optimization Of Decision Effect At Partial Loads”, A Ph. D. Thesis, Faculty Of Engineering/Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Kirillin V. A., Sychev V. V., and Sheindlin A. E. (1976), “ Engineering thermodynamics”, Mir Publishers, Moscow.

Huang F. F. (1989), “ Engineering thermodynamics, Fundamentals and Applications ”, Macmillan Publishing Company, New York.

“Webster’s Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary, of the English Language” (1996), Random House Value Publishing Inc., New York.

El-Wakil M. M. (1984), “Power Plant Technology”, McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, USA.

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